I appologize I write this to Hungarian e-mail list but someone
of you wrote about Southern Slovakia (Someone talks 'UPPER LAND')
in time of WWII and I read very interesting book about it.
Lorant Tilkovszky - Magyar historician from Budapest wrote:
Juzne Slovensko v rokoch 1938-45 / Southern Slovakia in 1938-1945,
Vydavatelstvo SAV, Bratislava, SAV 1972.
I tried to translate 4th chapter of that to English and my friend
corrected my gramatical mistakes. And this is the beginning of it.
Chapter 4 is titled
" Hungarization efforts in educational policies and works of enlighment"
"The situation of the Hungarian minority school system in CS (1918-38)
could not be used neither by the Hungarian government nor by the United
Hungarian party in their propaganda aims of undermining Czechoslovakia."
"The Hungarian goverment ordered its agent number "215", who knew the
educational situation of the minorities in CS very well, to make a detailed
report  with detailed statistics and a detailed characterization of
the Hungarian (language) school system in Slovakia by districts.
The department for nationalities and minorities of the Office of the
Hungarian Prime Minister accepted this report with immense disappointment,
because it didn't contain any such thing, which would have satisfied
the aggressive Hungarian propaganda interests and they quickly postponed it
"The report stated, that in Slovakia, of the 758 towns and villages with
a Magyar minority presence, in 660 of them there exists an elementary school
taught in Hungarian, of these in 150 cases there even existed 2 to 3 schools
in the same town. Though in 98 villages there weren't any Hungarian schools,
however of these 25 villages are so small that there is no school at all and
the children attend the neighboring village, in 33 cases there is a common
Hungarian school for neighboring villages, in 17 cases there are so few
Hungarians, that there could not have been a request for a Hungarian school;
in 3 cases new Hungarian schools were being organized. Agent number "215"
counted 19 villages, where even in his opinion there was no reason to request
a Hungarian school and about 30-35 towns, where few Magyars exist, but there
also exist Magyar national school in 9 of these cases."
"The situation in high schools is similar. According to the author, along
with the existing 8 gymnazia, a further 3 gymnazia could have been asked for,
and along with the existing 25 Hungarian upper-level (grammar) schools another
8 (could be asked for), along with the existing 2 agro-technical schools
another (could be asked for), along with the 5 commercial schools another
could be asked for. Besides these there existed one technical high school
and some apprentice (trade) schools (which weren't reported in the number)
along with 3 teacher institutes. At the technical high schools and middle
schools there were 2 dormitories only for Magyars and in 4 others the Magyar
students were living along with Slovaks. In the agent's opinion there could
have been 1 further dormitory."
"The complaints of Magyars living in CS weren't so much directed at the
number of Magyar schools as they were mostly against the competiting schools
of the Slovak league. This organization was economically and morally sponsored
well by the state in founding Slovak schools in Magyar villages, where only
a few Slovaks lived - like state officers, coloniers, frontier and financial
officers, etc. Modern schools of the Slovak league with big class-rooms,
lots of school supplies, free allottments of books and boarding often with
free meals and contributions towards school clothes were contrasted with
with the old, barn-like, neglected Magyar schools full of pupils.
For these reasons (claims the report) Magyar parents were often influenced
to register their children to schools with Slovak lang., mainly they wanted
them to studya and eventually to work as civil servants or other admin
where they needed to know the state language. But at times they sent their
children to Slovak schools due to political reasons. 
The decreasing numbers of students in hungarian schools could not be
attributed only in CS national policy, which "bought souls".
The nationalistic Hungarian parties are just as responsible for the
situation in the Hungarian minorities schools in the CS, whose activities
"in representing the Hungarian school interests" were exhausted in
provoking antislovak sentiment, which channeled into obstinate, insulting
later destructive policies, but eventhen it could achieve even qualified
and righteous demands of CS Hungarians. "
"What was the situation in minorities' education in Hungary in that time?
Secondary schools did not exist at all and the number of elementary schools
lagged for instance in comparison with the situation in CS. If we also
to take into account that in the minority schools the prevalent teaching
language was Hungarian, is clear that Hungary, in its school politics,
did not provide for its minorities even remotely the same advantages
for its minorities as those afforded the Magyars in the "successor state".
In Hungary this situation was being explained that Hungary was a nation-
state principle, that it does not have minorities in significant numbers
and wherein they exist, that they are encircled by Magyars for ages, mixed
and so Hungarized that it would not be good to turn back this development.
A different situation arose, when the Vienna Arbitrage adjudged southern
Slovakia with a numerous self-confident Slovak population to Hungary.
The Hungarian government attempted to decrease to the minimum the entitlement
to education for Slovaks, who were for 20 years educated in national self-
consciousness in CSR, in this the (Hungarian policy) was not hesitant to
utilize force. 150 schools of the Slvoak League were either closed or
turned into Hungarian schools and 900 Slovak teachers from these schools
were deported with claim that these schools were installed for CS servant's
children and they were not need after their leaving .
Already in the first days after annexation there was an attack upon the
national rights of the Slovaks - long-time holders of homesteaders; amongst
others aspects, and not in the least place, the right to having their schools.
During the period of military administration in the in extraordinary population
census of DEC 1938, which was administered under armed military assistence
and thus under psychological pressure, the number of Slovak inhabitants
in many villages was thus decreased to such a degree, providing a reason
to justify the closure of the Slovak schools and to establish Hu. schools.
The Slovak teachers were in places terrorized and beaten by the gendarmes
for fears of alerting the Slovaks of their right to having their schools. 
The Civil administration, which succeeded the military administration
on 21st DEC 1938, attempted to solve the educational problem in principle.
Pal Teleki, in that time minister of culture and education, had an important
role in it. Later on he handed over ministry to Balint Homan and became
Prime minister on 16th FEB 1939, kept on directing these questions.
At the time of the annexation of southern Slovakia to Hungary the minority
schools in Hungary were of the "uniform type" with mixed teaching lang. by
decree from 23rd DEC 1935. This system started to be established in the school
year 1936/37 and in 1937/38 there were already 72 schools taught as such.
These were foremost German minority schools. The Goverment tried to sabotage
its own decree, which was created under German pressure, in relation to the
other minorities. This type of school did not enable Hungarization in such
a degree as it was during the time of validity Klebelsberg's decree from 1923,
according to which there existed 3 types of minority schools :
Type B - predecessor of current uniform type - some lessons were taught in
the Hungarian language and some in the minority language.;
Type A - was established less frequently - the Hungarian language was
only a compulsory class and the rest was taught in the minority lang.;
the widest was Type C - teaching language was Hungarian and the minority
language was only a class ; when a minority school had to be established
this was the most gladly type .
A new "uniform-mixed" type of minorities schools (old Type B) was not
acceptable neither for minority demands nor for Hungarization efforts of
Hungarian goverment. Teleki therefore did not cling on to this type,
and when the Slovak educational question was being solved in the annexed
territory, he proposed to strive for the older types. A part of the Slovak
schools, mainly in Sk villages wedged into the territory inhabited by the
Magyar population, were changed to schools of Type C - almost fully Magyar-
because they named teachers for them who did not know the Slovak language
at all. The fact that in S~urany and elsewhere in schools, which were
changed into Hungarian language schools, the absolute majority of children
was Slovak and they did not understood the teacher at all, was not taken
into account. 
Another part of the schools was proclaimed as "Hungarian-Slovak". These
schools would have been associated as decreased uniform type (former B),
if they had named a sufficient number of teachers who knew the Slovak lang.
But that did not happen and in reality the teaching language was Hungarian
and the Slovak language was merely used as an aid to reach comprehension
with children . Certainly, such measures could not be realized in all
of the schools from fear of reciprocal measures in Hu. schools in Slovakia.
They therefore resorted to such measures, that in the thereto independent
Slovak schools they established Hungarian paralells, wherein in the Slovak
part the older Type A, that is instruction in the Slovak with compulsory
Hungarian. This certainly did not mean a resignation of Hungarization.
On the contrary, this reorganization arose out of the idea, that in such
diversified schools during the course of several years the students can
be inconspicuosly reoriented into the Hungarian parallels and that the
Slovak classes will perspectively cease to exist. 
They commanded that the Hungarian children may only attend the Hungarian
schools or Hungarian parallel schools, on the other hand if parents request
it, the Slovak children may attend Hungarian school or Hu par. school. 
For the instances, when there could not be established a Hungarian parallel
school, Teleki issued a confidentail decree: "Let us try to find a more
elastic form of solution, let us increase the number of Hungarian teachers
in these schools, let us institute more teaching hours of Hungarian lang.
without the formal reoranization" .
Teleki would have often preferred if the municipal administration had not
so often tried to establish the Hungarian parallel schools so eagerly,
because it often done in an undesirable, or even in a dangerous manner.
Namely they started with the parsings of names. Slovak children who had
Magyar names were considered without furhter adieu as Magyars, even when
they could not speak Hungarian at all and were transfered to Hungarian
parallel schools. Teleki prohibited this method of parsing of names,
indicating that this method could then also be used in the successor states;
not talking about such undesirable and dangerous it could be from the view-
point of dissimilation efforts of Magyars with German name. 
The forceful establishment of Hungarian parallel school happended in different
way also. One of these ugly ways is showed in the result of the investigation
which was begun on basis of a decree, in which is expressed a concern for
the fate of Hungarian children from orphanages, which were alotted to Slovak
adopting parents. It became evident, that concerns about their "Slovakization"
was only a pretence to achieve a predetermined limit in Sk villages
for the installablishment of Hungarian parallel schools. "The dislocation
of Hungarian children to places with Slovak majority allows in many villages
the establishemnt of Hungarian parallel schools teaching in (HU) lang.,
that is surely an excellent Hungarization factor" announced the county
ispan of Abov-Turnan county to the premier .
However speculation was not the major role in the Hungarization of the schools
but pressure full in the open. In the N(y)itra-Bratislava county by decree
of the county-lord Vilmos Jaross, Janos Bolyky jr. from Nove Zamky, on basis
of the notification of his disposition recieved from the municipal offices,
organized pressure on Slovaks - public servants to register their children
to Hungarian school or Hungarian parallel school near Slovak school.
The railroad workers were the first who were put to the test, whether they
wanted to give their children to the Hungarian schools, or respectively to
the Hungarian parallel schools . E.g. in Ulany nad Zitavou, where by DEC 1938
census there were 98.9% Slovaks, they were called to a meeting and in warning
presence of the commandant and railway-master and were given to sign petition
about Hungarian parallel school .
Such was the reality of the "realistic understanding" of Slovak parents
the result of which was the "petition for the establishment of Hungarian
parallel schools or the respective reclassification of their children to
to the Hungarian parallel school in spite of their children not being able
to speak a single word of Hungarian.  Of the 67 pupils of the elementary
school in Nizna Hutka only 3 or 4 were Hungarian, but still the administration
arranged to change the alnguage of instruction to the Hungarian language in
already in DEC 1940 .
In Cernik Hungarian parallel school had 27 pupils, of these only 5 had
Hungarian as their mother tongue. In Kamjatice there were 52 pupils in
Hungarian parallel schools which was run by an order of nuns, and only 4
of them were Magyars. It is self-evident that local parents did not
voluntarily, of their own will, register their children with the Hungarian
parallel schools, as it happended "not without influence" that 26 parents
in Nizna Mysla and 29 Sk parents in Kostany requested the establishment of
the Hungarian parallel school .
There was a typical case of the village Sv. Michal upon the Zitava,
where main administrator established a Hungarian parallel school with
urgency in APR 1941, referring to the 30 children. When later the request
was published in JUNE, only 11 parents signed it and when it was established
only 6 children enrolled themselves in the school. Then the gerdarmerie
intervened and started to investigate the people for national provocations.
After this intervention the Hungarian parallel school could start with
12 pupils .
The department of nationalities and minorities of the office of Prime minister
took the standpoint against these attempts "... whose direction was such
that they by threats either forced or restricted the freedom of minorities
(protected by law) in their decision, to what schools they will enroll
their children , though this standpoint has not any sence in reality
but it was also adapted by conditions, e.g. "in educational questions of
Slovak colonists". According to the view of the legal department the requests
of the Slovak colonists' for schools should be judged in different point
of view .
The request of the Roman-Catholic school in Demendice for permission to teach
in the Slovak language was refused and justified with
"The demands of the settled inhabitants with foreign language with anti-
Hungarian aims cannot be given the same dignified treatment, to which are
entitled the old-settlers, in a time of the foreign settlement of territory
of the Hungarian ethnic population, during the time of the foreign state's
existance with an anti-Hungarian goal" and besides
"the Hungarian royal minister of agriculture wants to expedite deportation
of the Upper-land colonists" .
By such a basic standpoint the lowest offices of administration got a free
hand to exert pressure and thus e.g. in village Radzovce and in associated
settlements Slovak "colonists" asked for Hungarian schools instead of the
existing Slovak school because the school inspector from Balassagyarmat
threatened them, that he would force them to depart from country .
When it was clear that deporting of Sk colonists could not be realized
the principle "that Slovaks, who were resettled on Hungarian territory
after 1918 could not claim education in the mother tongue and consequently
the Hungarian language needs to be established in their shools"; and when
this principle was not changed still the standpoint was taken up
"that realization of this step can be deferred for the time being" .
In many places this pressure caused very resolute opposition of self-
conscious Slovaks. In Surany the Slovaks excluded from their society all
of those that had registred their children with Hungarian schools and
in this way they forced them to registre children to Sk schools .
M. Baromlak's inhabitants in spite of they were put under gendarme's control,
achieved a Slovak school in 1941. Hungarian schools tried to get or to keep
Slovak pupils without success by using Slovak league methods(milk action)
because Slovaks reregistred them en mass to the allowed Slovak school,
that it was quickly full and inadequate for the number of students.
There helped neither such tricks as e.g. they did not want to re-registre
child to Sk school on mother request when father was soldier and was not
present, nor canonical preachings "Why are you such strong Slovaks indeed
Slovaks have not any Saints besides Cyril and Method and Magyars have
an entire row of them" .
In Semerove, where the 90% Slovak majority could not be decreased even
with a "census" in DEC 1938 below 38% , the request for the establishment
of Sk parallel school was refused in 1941 , but in the next year
they managed to have it established .
The decision of the Ministerial council, the birth registers, which were
until now registered in the Slovak language, could thereafter only be
conducted in the Hungarian language, followed the goal that children
be recorded as Hungarians en masse and enrolled in Hungarian schools. 
 Orsza'gos Leve'lta'r, Budapest (OL), Miniszterelno"kse'gi iratok
(ME), Nemzetise'gi o., box. 47, G 1785/1938. "The Hungarian minority
educational situation on *UPPER LAND* : cares of situation of Hu.
schools in Slovakia and in Ruthenia too.
 OL, Ku"lu"gyminiszte'rium (Kum), Pol., c.105/1938, Bratislava 6.1.
1938. Bratislava Hungarian consulate's report.
Szvatko' Pa'l - A visszate'rt magyarok, Budapest 1938, 186-7, 191.
Fleischmann Gyula - Czehszlovakia mu"velo"de'spolitika'ja e's
kisebbse'g. Magyar Pedago'gia, 1939, 109-113.
 Go"mo"ry Ja'nos - Emle'keim egy letu"nt vila'grol.
 Ottli'k La'szlo' - Magyar nemzetise'gi politika, Budapest 1938,8;
Fleischmann - ibid
 OL, ME, Ta'je'koztata'si o., box. 3, B 35/a. Hungarian Bratislava's
consulate report about talk with Tiso, 12.1. 1939.
 Result gendarme's and notary's terror was that in some Sk villages
92-96% of inhabitants reported (?) to Hu. nationality. Change schools
to Hu. schools was based on this census. J. Bazovsky's - the reporter
for Sk minority on the Office of Prime minister - studying travel (?)
report about Vrable district, Budapest 7.7. 1939 (OL, ME, Nemzetsegi
o., bal. 54, E 18987/1939.) To hid pressure and intimidating mass (?)
Sk rewriting (?) to Hu. nationality in census was justified that
they have "Hu. feeling", "Hu. patriots". In count I. Revay's
explanation it was also caused by that "majority of Slovaks reacted
positively to returning and thanked in this way". (A belvederi
magyar-szlova'k hata'r. Budapest 1941, 63-64.) Later alleviation
of terror showed right reality - opposition against Hungarization.
"There were cases on back-returned territory, that some Sk villages'
inhabitants almost unanimously joint to Hu. nationality with frank
pleasure. But when school administration on base of it installed
Hu. teaching lang., at once temper (?) changed to hostile.
Ottlik Laszlo - A magyar nemzetisegi politika feladatai, Magyar
 OL, ME, Nemzetisegi o., box. 95, I 17574/1941.
F. Bihari, Sk Catholic church organist from Velke Lovce/Lot
writes: "I was here in time of returning of Southern Slovakia...
I heard his Excellency regent's words. I believed him... But
I stated with sorrow I am not in my homeland but in abroad...
gendarmes anon chased me as brigand, murder...
(OL, ME, Nemzetisegi o., box. I 17574/1941).
Bihary Ferenc - Curriculum vitae, Ujlot 9.9. 1940.
In Palarikovo (Slov. Meder) gendarmes beat teacher Luka'c~a Z~a'k.
(OL, ME, Nemzetisegi o., box. 54, E 16974/1939).
 They rather did not install such type of school in village Dag
in Komarno-Ostrihom's zhupa/county where besides German population
also Slovaks lived, because Slovaks also would start to ask for it.
(OL, ME, Nemzetisegi o., box 47, G 15599/1938.)
 Ke'pviselo"ha'zi Naplo' (KN), 1935/XXI, 450-452, 25.1. 1939,
Pal Teleki's speech (as min. of culture and education) in parliament.
 OL, ME, Nemzetisegi o., bal. 88, B 16439/1941.
Janos Angyal's (school inspector of Nitra-Bratislava's zhupa) report,
N. Zamky, 17.11. 1940. There were 65% of all pupils Slovaks in
Surany- Lajos~ov dvor , 86 % in Ja'sovej, 90% in Semerov.
 Ibid. Hu-Sk schools, where Sk pupils were majority:
Hody 69%, Palarikovo 73%, Trnovec n. Vahom- Ja'tov 90%, Kra'l~ova'
pri Senci 91%, Trnovec- Kl~uc~iarn~a 94%, Velke Lovce 98%, Ba'nov
(Ba'novska' Kesa) 98%, U'l~any n. Z~itavou (Fedy'mes~ n./Z.) 100%.
 OL, ME, Nemzetisegi o, box. 60, L 18436/1939.
 KN, 1939/II, 326. Ba'lint Homa'n's (min. of culture and education)
speech 22.11. 1939.
 OL, ME, Nemzetisegi o., box. 55, G 20162/1939 - Teleki's attitude,
about which he informed chief of department Ottlik at 14.11. 1939.
 Tamtiez, box. 66, P 20213/1939.
 Tamtiez, box. 119, D 15119/1942
 OL, Kum, Be'keelo"ke'szi'to" o., XXIII-38. Gyo"zo" Voza'r's report
about visiting villages at 13.-24.5. 1941.
 OL, ME, Nemzetsegi o., box. 144, P 18454/1942. Arthur Benisch's
report for PM at 26.3. 1942.
 State archives, Kosice, Kosice royal school inspectorate,
univerzal documents, box. 14, c. 2201/1940-41.
 OL, ME, Nemzetsegi o., box. 152, E 24830/1943 "Dr. Gyula Fleischman
inspector's travel in Surany and around", Budapest, 8.5. 1943.
 Ibid, box. 144. P 22729 a 22730/1942.
 Ibid, box. 143, P 16190/1942.
 Ibid, box. 66, P 20347/1939.
 Ibid, box. B 25265/1941. It refers about installation of Sk teaching
lang. in state nationali school in Hurbanovo-Zeleny Haj. Similarly
refused request from Kalinciakovo (Varsany). OL, ME, Nemzetsegi o.,
box. 143, P 171136/1942.
 Ibid, box. 117, B 15504/1942. Massive of The Ministry of culture
and education, Budapest 12.7. 1942.
 Ibid, box. 73, G 16520/1940.
 Ibid, box. 182, P 25100/1943 "Szlova'k rela'cio'" (Slovak program)
 KN, 1939/VIII, 1073, 29.11. 1940 - Be'la Pinte'r's speech.
 Such initiative late on was systematized and institutionazed (?)
League for defence of children, which sponsored in schools on joint
territory mainly Hu. children and Sk. children, who attended Hu.
par. schools (St. archives, Nitra, Major zhupa documents
of Tekov-Hont zhupa, 802/1943).
 OL, Kum, Bekeelokeszito o., XXIII-38. G. Vozar's report.
 OL, ME, Nemzetsegi o., box. 54, E 16974/1939, Jan Bazovsky's report
about studying travel in Nove Zamky district at 21.-24.4. 1939.
 OL, Kum, Bekeelokeszito o., XXIII, 38, G. Vozar's report about
travel in N. Zamky district at 4.-6.6. 1941.
 OL, ME, Nemzetsegi o., box. 144, P 23002/1942.
 OL, Min. Council's records, 23.8. 1939.