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1 USA/Hungary - OMRI Daily Digest No.142, Jul/24/95 (mind)  155 sor     (cikkei)
2 Re: Hunyadis ethnicity (mind)  122 sor     (cikkei)
3 Running in HUN (mind)  8 sor     (cikkei)
4 Genealogists help Magyars track roots (mind)  229 sor     (cikkei)
5 Re: recipes of hungary (mind)  5 sor     (cikkei)
6 Hungarian Students Need Books in English (mind)  31 sor     (cikkei)
7 recipes of hungary (mind)  5 sor     (cikkei)
8 Re: Back to Brutus V (mind)  15 sor     (cikkei)
9 USA/Hungary - OMRI Daily Digest No.143, Jul/25/95 (mind)  129 sor     (cikkei)

+ - USA/Hungary - OMRI Daily Digest No.142, Jul/24/95 (mind) VÁLASZ  Feladó: (cikkei)

*** Greetings from Hungarian-American List ***
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CZECH ARMY TO MODERNIZE MIG-21 JETS. The Czech Ministry of Defense has
decided to modernize 24 MiG-21 jets, despite a recommendation by the
parliamentary Security Committee not to do so, Mlada Fronta Dnes reported
on 24 July. Defense Minister Vilem Holan last week said that only two
MiG-21 jets would be modernized initially in order to establish whether to
go ahead with all 24. According to ministry sources quoted by the daily,
the ministry has asked four Czech firms to submit proposals on modernizing
the planes. The upgrading is estimated to cost $135 million, while the
purchase of new jet fighters from the West would reportedly cost $750-870
million. The proponents of the project have argued that the upgrading will
increase the effectiveness of the MiG-21 jets to about 80% of the U.S. F-16
jets. Critics have argued that the modernization project is costly and
ineffective in the long run. -- Jiri Pehe, OMRI, Inc.

Duray, chairman of the ethnic Hungarian Coexistence movement, apologized on
21 July to both the U.S. and the Slovak cabinet for statements made by him
and his coalition partners when they returned from a recent U.S. visit (see
OMRI Daily Digest, 19 July 1995). Duray said some statements made by
Hungarian Civic Party Chairman Laszlo Nagy and Hungarian Christian
Democratic Movement Chairman Bela Bugar may have caused misunderstandings
and thus needed further explanation. Duray also said he could not confirm
that U.S. representatives expressed themselves in the way his coalition
partners had claimed, stressing that nothing was said that could be taken
as an expression of U.S. interference in Slovakia's internal affairs. Bugar
and Nagy, expressing surprise at Duray's apology, said it signaled a
misunderstanding within the Hungarian coalition. They emphasized that
because Duray had not consulted them, his apology could not be considered
to represent the standpoint of the coalition as a whole, Sme and Pravda
reported on 22 July. Duray's apology followed a statement by the U.S.
embassy in Bratislava on 19 July denying some of the ethnic Hungarians'
allegations. -- Sharon Fisher, OMRI, Inc.

U.S.-HUNGARIAN EXERCISE ENDS. The first U.S.-Hungarian search-and-rescue
exercise ended in western Hungary on 21 July, MTI reported. The final event
was the simulated recovery of wounded troops after a jet fighter crashed
into a military unit. Hungarian and American servicemen flew aboard each
other's helicopters and performed parachute jumps from both Hungarian Mi-8
helicopters and American Cp130 transports. A Hungarian officer reported
that the Americans had reconstructed a building at Szentkiralyszabadja
airfield and "provided technical equipment for the Hungarian Air Force." --
Doug Clarke, OMRI, Inc.

WESTERN ALLIES PUT SERBS ON NOTICE. International media on 24 July reported
that British, French, and U.S. representatives the previous day warned
Bosnian Serb commander General Ratko Mladic that "massive and
unprecedented" air strikes awaited the Bosnian Serbs should they attack
Gorazde or other "safe areas" in Bosnia-Herzegovina. It appears that this
warning, as well as the vaguer formulations issued in London by the Contact
Group on 22 July, apply to Sarajevo, Tuzla, and Bihac, but not to embattled
Zepa. The allies told the Serbs that there can be "no military solution" in
Bosnia and that further attacks against the UN-designated zones "cannot be
tolerated." -- Patrick Moore, OMRI, Inc.

CROATIA PLEDGES HELP FOR BIHAC. The VOA on 23 July said that "the most
serious fighting" over the weekend was in the Bihac pocket, where the Serbs
have taken 75 sq km of territory since 19 July. The "safe area" is being
hit by renegade Muslims from the north, Krajina Serbs from the west, and
Bosnian Serbs from the east and south. Croatian Foreign Minister Mate
Granic told the BBC on 23 July that the fall of Bihac would affect his
country's "vital interests" since it would consolidate land links between
Krajina and the Bosnian Serbs. Croatian President Franjo Tudjman and his
Bosnian counterpart, Alija Izetbegovic, met in Split on 22 July. They were
accompanied by large delegations and, "in an unofficial capacity," by the
highly influential U.S. Ambassador Peter Galbraith, Slobodna Dalmacija
wrote on 24 July. Vecernji list carried the text of the final declaration,
which stressed that the meeting was aimed at consolidating the
Muslim-Croatian federation. It also noted that Sarajevo asked Zagreb for
"urgent military and other assistance," which the Croats then promised. It
is not clear what form the Croatian support will take. -- Patrick Moore,
OMRI, Inc.

Bosnian Prime Minister Haris Silajdzic reacted to the vague decisions of
the London meeting of the Contact Group, the International Herald Tribune
said on 22 July. U.S. Senator Robert Dole announced he would go ahead with
plans for a Senate vote on lifting the arms embargo against the Bosnian
government. The eight-member ad hoc committee of the Organization of the
Islamic Conference met on 21 July and declared the embargo "invalid and
immoral." IRNA reported on 24 July that Iranian Foreign Minister Ali Akbar
Velyati will organize a meeting of Islamic defense ministers and military
chiefs to discuss ways of helping the embattled republic. Bosnian Foreign
Minister Muhamed Sacirbey said that he already has promises of help but
that the details have to be worked out. (See related item in Russian
section.) -- Patrick Moore, OMRI, Inc.

agencies on 21 July reported the arrest in Budapest of an Italian citizen
who planned to distribute more than $12 million worth of fake Romanian lei.
A police official in Cluj said the counterfeiting operation had the
potential to disrupt Romania's economy. He added that joint efforts by the
Romanian, Hungarian, and Italian police resulted in the arrest of Antonio
Scale in the Hungarian capital on 8 July. Romania's Prosecutor General's
Office is seeking his extradition. -- Michael Shafir, OMRI, Inc.

City Prosecutor Nestor Nestorov on 21 July said Bulgarian citizens arrested
for alleged involvement in the death of 18 illegal Sri Lankan immigrants in
Hungary (see OMRI Daily Digest, 17 July 1995) will not be extradited,
Reuters reported the same day. He said Bulgarian law prevents the
extradition of Bulgarian citizens on criminal charges, adding that so far
Hungarian authorities have made no such request. The suspects will stand
trial in Bulgaria instead. Legal proceedings against them on charges on
manslaughter and forgery of travel documents have already been initiated.
Nestorov confirmed that the owner and driver of the truck have been
arrested, but he declined to say how many more people were being held. --
Stefan Krause, OMRI, Inc.

Predator spy planes employed in Albania since 14 July to gather
intelligence on Bosnia will continue their mission until October,
Montena-fax reported on 22 July. The undertaking has been extended because
of the recent worsening of the Bosnian crisis. Elsewhere, U.S. troops ended
the Sarex-2 program, which included military exercises for humanitarian
rescue operations. The exercises were the two countries' third joint
maneuvers, Lajmi i Dites reported on 22 July. -- Fabian Schmidt, OMRI, Inc.

UZBEK REVERSAL ON IRAN. Uzbek Foreign Minister Abdulaziz Komilov, on a
visit to Tehran to attend the formal opening of Uzbekistan's embassy on
23 July, rejected the claims of "some western media" that his government
backed the U.S. trade embargo against Iran, IRNA reported. Claiming
illness, Komilov had earlier canceled a 12 May visit to Tehran after
Uzbek President Islam Karimov expressed support for the embargo against
Iran. -- Lowell Bezanis, OMRI, Inc.

reported that the body of the vice-chairman of the Tajik-Austrian-U.S.
joint venture AAA was found in the Tajik capital on 21 July, according
to AFP. The ministry report said 32-year-old Zainiddin Echonkulov had
been shot several times. An investigation has been launched. -- Bruce
Pannier, OMRI, Inc.
[As of 12:00 CET]
[As of 1200 CET]
Compiled by Jan Cleave
Compiled by Victor Gomez

This material was reprinted with permission of the Open Media 
Research Institute, a Prague-based nonprofit organization.

       Copyright (C) 1995 Open Media Research Institute, Inc.
                    All rights reserved.

> -----------------------------------------------------------------------
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+ - Re: Hunyadis ethnicity (mind) VÁLASZ  Feladó: (cikkei)

In article >,  () says:
>But getting to the Held monograph, I found a few things very
>intrigueing.  Here is, for instance, what Held writes about Iancu's
>father, Voyk:

>>Once in Hungary, he probably married a Hungarian lesser
>>noblewoman whose name it is not known. She might have
>>been a Szapolyai,

>So even if dismissing the Sigismund "liason" legend, Iancu still turns
>out to be half Hungarian.

You might be correct here. However, one should stress Held's
very careful choice of words in dealing with Hunyadi's origin:
"he probably...", "she might...", and especially "we know next to
nothing of his ancestry". Thus, although Voyk married in
Transylvania it is not certain that the Szapolyai woman was
Hunyadi's real mother. Actually, one can think of several reasons
why she was rather his step-mother:

1.According to the chronicle of the counts Cilli,
the elder Janos was born in Wallachia: "it is known that
this Janos Hunyadi was born in Wallachia..." Also, the
contemporary chronicler Thuroczi mentioned that the family
[not Voyk alone, but the "family"] was from Wallachia.
This is strong evidence, I think, that Janos was born before
Voyk's Transylvanian marriage.

2.The patent issued in 1409 by king Sigismund mentioned
Voyk his brothers Radul and Magos, Voyk's son Janos, and
his nephew also called Radul. The fact that the young Janos
was included in this document was considerd evidence for his
royal ancestry. However, a 1448 letter written in Janos' name
by Janos Vitez was long accepted as proof that Hunyadi was over
60 years old. Thus, if one accepts that Janos was over 60
yers old in 1448, his mentioning in the original patent of
king Sigismund simply means that in 1409 he was considered
among the adult male members of the family. Therefore,
neither him nor uncle Magos, not even cousin Radul, was related
in any special way to the king. They were just men of
exceptional qualities.

3.Hunyadi did not know Latin. Don't you agree that this is
very strange for someone raised by a Szapolyai mother? A
possible interpretation might be that he was only Voyk's son,
born in Wallachia and almost an adult when his father
married in Transylvania. If he was much older than his
brothers, Janos Jr. and Voyk Jr., than this would explain
why was Janos the only son mentioned in king Sigismund's

>>Voyk sired three sons Janos, Janos Jr. (!)  and Voyk Jr.
>>and perhaps one or two daughters of whom only one is
>>known to us by name.

>I've never heard of having two
>children of a family in Hungary be given the same name.

It is curios indeed. The only similar case I know of is that
of Andruta Ceausescu. He kept naming his sons Nicolae
because he was drunk most of the time :-) One cannot blame
Voyk for a similar habit. Thuroczy mentioned that Voyk was an
excellent soldier and that his value in battle was the reason
behind his upward social mobility.

>So I smell something fishy about this. Could this be
>because one of the Iancus was an adapted son?
>Woyk was asked to "legitimize" the illegitimate son.  In
>exchange, Woyk got favors from the Hungarian king.  Of course, I am only
>speculating here and if anybody could come up another reasonable
>explanation of the two Iancus in one family, I am all ears.

We know for sure that both Voyk and his older son
had real qualities. Maybe a more reasonable speculation is
the following: Voyk and his older son, Iancu, were Wallachian
immigrants. Once in Transylvania Voyk's qualities as a soldier
caught Sigismund's eye, a king seeking to lessen his dependence
upon feudal armies of the aristocrats by making increasingly use
of mercenaries. In order to improve his social status, Voyk
married a Szapolyai and even changed his religion. The first
son of this marriage was named Janos, the Hungarian translation
of his older son name, a simbolic bound between past and present,
between the old country and the new one. Or maybe it was
Szapolyai's intention to assure a smooth relation
with her already adult step-son.

>>Hungarian historians have sometimes attempted to deny
>>Hunyadi's Wallachian origin.

>This is new to me, because Hunyady's Wallachian background was written
>up even by one of the greatest Hungarian poets of the 19th century.
>But it was treated only on that legend level in the Hungarian highschool

Held gives the following references:
Aldor, I., 1876, Hunyadi Janos es kora. Budapest.
Nagy, I., 1857-68, Magyaroszag csaladai cimerekkel es nemezedeki
      tablakkal, 13 vols., Pest.
Homan, B., 1936, Magyar Tortenet, 5 vols., Budapest.

>>The fact that king Sigismund
>>mentioned the young Janos in the original patent and that
>>his successors, Albert I and Wladislaw I granted large
>>landed estates to the Hunyadis has been considered
>>evidence for their Hungarian and royal ancestry.

>Is Held dismissing this theory?  If so, why?

The theory assumes that it was impossible for a
non-Hungarian ethnic to achive the high social
status the Hunyadis achived in 15th century Hungaria.
Therefore, the theory ignores the testimony of
contemporary chroniclers and gives credit to the legends.

I guess, Held simply found the Cilli and Thurcozi are trustworthy
enough and that social and political proeminence did not depend
entirely upon ethnic or social origins.


Liviu Iordache
+ - Running in HUN (mind) VÁLASZ  Feladó: (cikkei)

Hello! I'm still looking for road running races in Hungary during August
18-23. Any info is appreciated. Thanks!

******************* "Caught in a web,         *******************************
* Mika Perkiomaki *  removed from the world.  *  http://www.uta.fi/~csmipe/ *
*    *  Hanging on by a thread,  *******************************
*******************  spinning the lies devised in my head." - Dream Theater -
+ - Genealogists help Magyars track roots (mind) VÁLASZ  Feladó: (cikkei)

***[Greetings from Hungarian-American HyperNews]***
  ***[       http://mineral.umd.edu/hahn/        ]***

The following article originally appeared in 

        The Hungary Report

        Direct from Budapest, every week

        No. 1.17, July 24, 1995

> ------------------------------------------------------------------------


  Geneologists help Magyars track roots

  By Michael J. Jordan
  Tel: (361) 141-4837
  Copyright (c) 1995

  A decade ago, American Philip Janosik was sitting in his living room
  surrounded by three generations of his family when he felt the tug of
  his ancestral roots.

  "It occurred to me that if someone didn't start putting our history
  down on paper it would be lost some day," said Janosik, a 63-year-old
  retiree living in Enumclaw, Washington. "It's something for my
  descendents, not for myself."

  A decade of genealogical research later, Janosik now believes he is a
  descendent of the legendary Hungarian "Robin Hood" figure Gyorgy
  Janosik, whose gang robbed from landowners and gave to peasants in
  the Tatra Mountains in the early 1700s.

  "I think I'm related, but I'm not sure how yet," Janosik said in an
  interview from the United States.

  Despite a reputation for rootlessness, Americans have long been
  fascinated with their ties to the Old World. And the collapse of the
  Soviet empire has brought to the surface reams of records and
  documents that have given genealogical services and hobbyists
  unprecedented access to Central and Eastern European archives.

  Genealogical services, which charge from $200 to $2,000 to create a
  family tree, are increasing in popularity. The services are
  particularly popular among Americans, who rely heavily on
  professional assistance because they are not familiar with European
  history and geography and often don't have the luxury of traveling to
  poke through materials.

  Janosik assumed he was of Slovak origin because he looked at the map
  and saw the town his relatives had emigrated from was in present-day
  Slovakia. Only later did he learn that the town was part of Hungary
  at the time his parents left.

  Even high-profile Americans, like newly elected New York Governor
  George Pataki, are getting into the act. Pataki has learned from his
  older brother Louis, the family archivist, that their grandfather
  grew up in Kisvarda, a Hungarian village of 18,000 near the Ukrainian

  Grandfather Janos Pataki set off for the US in 1908 with dreams of a
  prosperous future, but wound up in a hat factory in Peekskill, NY.
  The new governor said he intends to visit Hungary because of his
  "strong emotional ties" to the region.

  But answering "Who am I?" is no longer a client's sole motivation.
  They also ask for information on land seized by the Communists in
  1948, how to obtain birth certificates and where to locate distant
  relatives. One 50-year-old man with a family history of heart disease
  called Family Tree Genealogical Research Bureau to learn more about
  what to expect in his future.

  For some clients, like Hungarian-Belgian Pter Langh, an interest in
  genealogy can be two-fold. Langh, a Brussels native who moved to
  Budapest in 1991, traced his Hungarian roots back to the 1650s. But
  equally important to him were the facts and figures about Hungary's
  century-old goose-liver industry. Langh and his father own Baron
  Kft., a processor and exporter of the Hungarian delicacy.

  "For 40 years Hungarians living abroad were kept apart from their
  history," said Langh, 37, whose family emigrated in 1957. "Unless
  you're a politician or a general in the army, you don't act on
  history. But by learning about the movement of your family and the
  way things were, you realize how history acted on you."

  Among clients, genealogists note a disproportionate number of Jews.
  For half a century the subject was taboo among Hungarian Jewry.
  Lineage once determined life or death: beginning in 1938, Hungarians
  were persecuted unless they could prove the absence of Jewish blood
  dating back three generations. And during the Communist era,
  hard-line leaders like Matyas Rakosi emphasized ideology over

  "Survivors of the Holocaust now want their children to know what
  happened to their ancestors," said genealogist Ilona Sardi, who works
  at the Budapest Jewish Museum.

  Tracing a family history can often be disillusioning. Some clients
  enter their quest with preconceived notions they are somehow linked
  to Hungarian nobility or famous literary figures. That only heightens
  the disappointment.

  "Almost always that's false," said Family Tree co-owner Tibor
  Radvanyi. "It was just some nice tale your grandma told you."

  Family Tree has, however, matched up clients with the likes of Mihaly
  Voromarty and Ferenc Deak. One client was recently traced back to a
  13th-century nobleman. Another client, Erzsebet Bese, is a descendant
  of one of the original Magyar tribes.

  "Before it was only family legend because we had no strong proof,"
  Bese said.

  For every discovery of a celebrity ancestor, there's one that
  shatters a family.

  One Hungarian-American discovered through research that his father
  was a Hungarian fascist leader during World War II. Another family
  was humiliated to learn of an ancestor born out of wedlock. And a
  Hungarian-Argentinean, a staunch Roman-Catholic, recently refused
  payment to Family Tree when told he was related to a 19th-century

  Genealogists encourage clients to adopt the same attitude as Ernest
  Chrisbacher of Wayne, NJ. He wasn't surprised to learn his ethnic
  German ancestors were farmers for 250 years in western Hungary. The
  family name Griesbacher was changed by US immigration officials at
  the turn of the century.

  "Every road you take in life has a thousand forks in it, and that's
  how I came to be here," said the 61-year-old Chrisbacher. For several
  years he's published a newsletter updating about 100 Griesbachers
  around the world of his genealogical research.

  Realistic expectations make for greater likelihood of a "success,"
  said longtime genealogist A. Sandor Harmath. Said Harmath: "Don't be
  disappointed if it turns out you're coming from a very simple

  So, you want to trace your Hungarian roots

  Genealogist Harmath, who says he has searched through archives for
  more than 600 clients over the past 50 years, has a simple
  do-it-yourself recipe: knowledge of Hungarian history and geography,
  and mastery of German and Latin (Hungarian became the permanent
  official language only in 1867).

  If you're lacking any or all of these skills, Harmath says at least
  toss in a dash of detective work and a pinch of patience.

  The State Archives are located at 1 Beecsi Kapu ter, on Castle Hill.

  Bring plenty of identification as security is tight. Head to the
  microfilm section armed with all the information you have about your
  family. Don't hesitate to ask for assistance.

  Start with the books listing town or church records. For each name,
  there is (hopefully) a date and place of birth, marriage and death,
  and the name of their spouse. File a request for the microfilm, and
  expect it the next day.

  From there, trace backward. If information is missing, search for
  clues. For example, suggests Harmath, if your ancestor was a peasant,
  but you don't know exactly where his family was from, try searching
  within a 30-kilometer radius.

  "When science doesn't serve you, you have to use your instincts,"
  Harmath said. But once you start, he promises, you'll find "it's like
  a drug. You can't give up."

  If the prospect of days spent in the library doesn't appeal to you,
  try a genealogist. Tell them what you want to know, then ask around
  for a couple of estimates.

  A word to the wise: the genealogy business everywhere has a
  reputation for producing hoaxes. Insist on xeroxed copies of

  Here are some sources contacted for this report:

  Tibor Radvanyi and Gyorgy Eotvos
  Family Tree
  Tel: (36-1) 215-0696; 132-7905

  Dr. Sandor Harmath
  Tel: (36-1) 114-0310
  Budapest 1085, Jozsef krt. 50, III/12

  Ilona Sardi
  Jewish Museum (specializing in Jewish heritage)
  Tel: (36-1) 342-1350; 342-8949

                                           * * *

  Michael Jordan (no, NOT the basketball player) is a freelance
  journalist writing for Reuters and other sources and, fortunately, is
  a friend of the Hungary Report. Unfortunately, he's not online

> ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                   * * *

  The entire contents of The Hungary Report is copyrighted by the
  authors. Permission is granted for not-for-profit, electronic
  redistribution and storage of the material. If readers redistribute
  any part of The Hungary Report by itself, PLEASE RESPECT AUTHORS'
  BY-LINES and copyright notices.

  Reprinting and resale of the material is strictly prohibited without
  explicit prior consent by the authors. Please contact the authors
  directy by email to enquire about resale rights.

                                   * * *
  Rick E. Bruner >
  John Nadler >
  Tibor Vidos > or <CompuServe: 76702,2227>

> -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
+ - Re: recipes of hungary (mind) VÁLASZ  Feladó: (cikkei)

In article >  (Matt Kovacs
) writes:
>Can any one send me some Hungarian recipes, mains, sweets, desserts, [...]

Start with:  http://www.fsz.bme.hu/hungary/cuisine/foods.html      -- Olivier
+ - Hungarian Students Need Books in English (mind) VÁLASZ  Feladó: (cikkei)

Dear fellow Hungarians,

A school in Hungary needs some books in the English language. An American
friend of mine teaches English to Hungarian hugh school students in
Hungary. He has been there for about three years and he has really gotten
close to the kids.

He recently wrote me a letter and he needs our help. He wrote: "We need
any textbook in the English language in the areas of English Language,
History of the U.S. or World History, Literature, Geography or Art. In
short, any books that middle or high schools can't use any longer and want
to get rid of.

As far as numbers of books, anything around 15 copies of anything is good,
as most of our language classes are 15 or 16 now, and students can always
share a book.

I don;t know if you have any good contacts with school districts in any
parts of the U.S., but if you know or hear of any that have some still
usable and interesting texts, we would be very happy to get them here."

If you can help, please contact me. 

It would be wonderful if the books would arrive in Hungary for the
beginning of the new school year in September.

Thank you for your support.

Steve Mihaly
Hungarian American Heritage Network

+ - recipes of hungary (mind) VÁLASZ  Feladó: (cikkei)

Can any one send me some Hungarian recipes, mains,
 sweets, desserts, and also if anybody knows shere
 the best place in Brisbane to shop hungarian is. 
I want to drink tokai again.
thanks matt
+ - Re: Back to Brutus V (mind) VÁLASZ  Feladó: (cikkei)

In article >  (Wally Keeler) wr
>: >In article >  (Wally Keeler
) writes:
>: >>(I have not yet learned of any instances where Magyars
>: >>have been burning down any Gypsie homes, [...]
>Does anybody know of instances within Hungary of such activity. I'm aware
>of Budapest skimheads going out on Gypsy hunts.

Not only in Budapest but also in smaller towns too in Hungary, like skinhead
teenagers throwing burning bottles at a house etc. And instances of extreme
brutality and insults by the police against Gypsies. People on s.c.magyar
might be able to give more details.
-- Olivier
+ - USA/Hungary - OMRI Daily Digest No.143, Jul/25/95 (mind) VÁLASZ  Feladó: (cikkei)

*** Greetings from Hungarian-American List ***
      ***    http://mineral.umd.edu/hungary/     ***
      ***     mailto:        ***

points against the U.S. dollar from its rate in 21 July MICEX trading to
close at 4,490 rubles to $1 on 24 July, Business-Tass reported the same
day. Initial demand was $16.36 million with 24 banks participating. --
Thomas Sigel, OMRI, Inc.

SOVIET-BUILT REACTORS "SAFE." A senior Russian nuclear official claimed
that 10 Soviet-built reactors that were recently criticized in a U.S.
federal intelligence report received a clean bill of health from the
International Atomic Energy Agency, ITAR-TASS reported on 24 July.
According to the U.S. report, 10 reactors in Russia, Ukraine, Slovakia,
Bulgaria, and Lithuania are at "high-risk" of failure because of their
poor and outdated design, inadequate regulatory regime, and economic
pressures to keep them running. Anatolii Zemskov, a spokesman for the
Rosenergoatom concern, said Russian reactors are subjected to regular
modernization and inspections to improve their safety, but he conceded
that some of the East European reactors need to be upgraded. -- Michael
Mihalka, OMRI, Inc.

Vilem Holan on 24 July denied reports that his ministry has decided to
modernize 24 MiG-21 jets (see OMRI Daily Digest, 24 July 1995), Rude
pravo reported the next day. The daily said Holan told journalists that
the only decision taken so far is for two jets to be upgraded by next
year, one as a fighter and the other for training. Further steps will be
taken only after this project has been evaluated. Members of the
parliament's Defense and Security Committee told Mlada fronta dnes that
the option of buying American F-16 fighters, though expensive, has not
been ruled out. One committee member said that if the modernization of
the 24 MiGs goes ahead despite their opposition, the parliament could
reduce the Defense Ministry's budget next year. -- Steve Kettle, OMRI,

sharp criticism for personnel changes and plans to implement
"alternative" (bilingual) education in schools for the Hungarian
minority, visited Budapest on 24 July to meet with her Hungarian
counterpart, Gabor Fodor. Discussions focused on minority education in
both countries as well as general educational concerns, TASR and Pravda
reported. Following the meeting, Slavkovska said a 1994 poll conducted
to determine interest in the alternative education program revealed that
21% of parents agreed with it. She criticized the politicization of the
issue, noting that the percentage agreeing with the program will
certainly decrease this year. Even so, Slavkovska said, the program will
not be canceled, as it is anchored in the cabinet's program. Stressing
that the program will be implemented on a voluntary basis, she said that
if a sufficient number of students want to enroll in an alternative
school, the ministry will allot the necessary funding. According to
Slavkovska, approximately 30 alternative kindergartens will be
established this year. -- Sharon Fisher, OMRI, Inc.

Gonzales, following a meeting in Madrid on 24 July with Hungarian
Premier Gyula Horn, told journalists that Spain will support the
European Union's eastward expansion. International media report Gonzales
as saying he will suggest to fellow EU prime ministers that East
European leaders be invited to the next EU summit in Madrid in December.
According to Gonzales, Spain "will never be an obstacle" to Hungary's
entry into the EU. Spain assumed the EU's six-month rotating presidency
on 1 July. Horn told the same press conference that EU membership is
"vital for Hungary." Gonzales's meeting with Horn was the second in a
series of talks scheduled with leaders of former communist countries. --
Jiri Pehe, OMRI, Inc.

Atlantic alliance meeting in Brussels on 24 July failed to agree on a
program for implementing the resolution approved in London on 21 July.
Another session is scheduled for the afternoon of 25 July. The
International Herald Tribune quoted an American official as saying that
"there's no snag. It's just complicated and time-consuming." But the VOA
said there are differences as to what would trigger air strikes, what
would be the targets, and who would order the missions. UN Secretary-
General Boutrous Boutrous Ghali insists that he have the final say, but
this is unacceptable to Washington, which wants the operations
exclusively in NATO hands. The International Herald Tribune on 24 July
quoted a French official as saying that "the object is to diminish the
firepower of the Serbs to a level where the Bosnians can hold their own,
not to raise the firepower of the Bosnians." U.S. Senate Majority Leader
Bob Dole has other ideas, however. The VOA reported that he will soon
call a vote on a unilateral lifting of the arms embargo against the
Bosnian government. -- Patrick Moore, OMRI, Inc.

promulgated the controversial education law, Romanian media reported.
The law, which has sparked widespread criticism from ethnic minorities
and especially from the Hungarian Democratic Federation of Romania
(UDMR), was recently denounced as detrimental to minority rights in a
resolution passed by the European Parliament. Iliescu defended the new
law at a press conference, saying he had "no reservations whatsoever"
about signing the bill. "The objections formulated by the UDMR are
groundless," he stressed. Asked about the campaign of civic disobedience
planned by the UDMR, Iliescu said the party was assuming "great
political responsibility." He expressed the hope that "the Hungarian
population will carefully weigh such actions." -- Dan Ionescu, OMRI,

SLOVENIAN FOREIGN MINISTER IN TIRANA. Zoran Thaler visited Albania on 21
July, Gazeta Shqiptare reported the following day. At meetings with
Albanian President Sali Berisha and Prime Minister Aleksander Meksi,
both sides agreed to improve economic and military cooperation. They
also discussed the Bosnian crisis and the Kosovo conflict, reportedly
agreeing that "the aggressor must be punished." In other news, a high-
ranking U.S. diplomatic delegation arrived in Tirana for a two-day visit
on 24 July to discuss bilateral relations and the situation in the
region, Montena-fax reported the same day. -- Fabian Schmidt, OMRI, Inc.
[As of 1200 CET]
[As of 12:00 CET]
Compiled by Victor Gomez
Compiled by Jan Cleave

This material was reprinted with permission of the Open Media 
Research Institute, a Prague-based nonprofit organization.

       Copyright (C) 1995 Open Media Research Institute, Inc.
                    All rights reserved.

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